The hippocampus is an essential neural structure in developing contextual memory in a situation in which rapid development of associative learning should occur. We tested a subregion-specific contribution in the hippocampus to memory acquisition and retrieval, using the contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The current results suggest that all three subregions (i.e., CA3, CA1, and dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus contribute to rapid acquisition of contextual memory in the initial phase of acquisition. The involvement of CA3 seems to be important at the earliest stage of acquisition, presumably for developing instant representation of a context. The role of CA3, however, was minimal in retrieving contextual memory after a long time period (i.e., 24 h), whereas the other subregions (i.e., CA1 and dentate gyrus) were critically involved. The results indicate time-dependent differential contributions of the hippocampal subregions to memory acquisition and retrieval in contextual fear-conditioning.